Tag Archives: Smoking

Stop smoking interventions and services

by NICE (2018)

NICE and Public Health England have published updated guidelines on the best ways to help people quit smoking. This guideline covers stop smoking interventions and services delivered in primary care and community settings. It aims to ensure that everyone who smokes is advised and encouraged to stop and given the support they need. It emphasises the importance of targeting vulnerable groups who are heavy smokers or have difficulty with smoking cessation.

Click here to view this guideline

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A systematic review of economic evaluations of local authority commissioned preventative public health interventions in overweight and obesity, physical inactivity, alcohol and illicit drugs use and smoking cessation in the United Kingdom

White, P. et al. Journal of Public Health, 2018, doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdy026

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Abstract
Background
Since 2013, local authorities in England have been responsible for commissioning preventative public health interventions. The aim of this systematic review was to support commissioning by collating published data on economic evaluations and modelling of local authority commissioned public health preventative interventions in the UK.

Methods
Following the PRISMA protocol, we searched for economic evaluations of preventative intervention studies in four different areas: overweight and obesity, physical inactivity, alcohol and illicit drugs use and smoking cessation. The systematic review identified studies between January 1994 and February 2015, using five databases. We synthesized the studies to identify the key methods and examined results of the economic evaluations.

Results
The majority of the evaluations related to cost-effectiveness, rather than cost-benefit analyses or cost-utility analyses. These analyses found preventative interventions to be cost effective, though the context of the interventions differed between the studies.

Conclusions
Preventative public health interventions in general are cost-effective. There is a need for further studies to support justification of continued and/or increased funding for public health interventions. There is much variation between the types of economically evaluated preventative interventions in our review. Broader studies incorporating different contexts may help support funding for local authority-sponsored public health initiatives.

Maternal smoking and the risk of still birth: systematic review and meta-analysis

Marufu, T.C et al (2015) BMC Public Health, 15: 239

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Abstract

Background

Smoking in pregnancy is known to be associated with a range of adverse pregnancy outcomes, yet there is a high prevalence of smoking among pregnant women in many countries, and it remains a major public health concern. We have conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide contemporary estimates of the association between maternal smoking in pregnancy and the risk of stillbirth.

Methods

We searched four databases namely MEDLINE, EMBASE, Psych Info and Web of Science for all relevant original studies published until 31st December 2012. We included observational studies that measured the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and the risk of stillbirth.

Results

1766 studies were screened for title analysis, of which 34 papers (21 cohorts, 8 case controls and 5 cross sectional studies) met the inclusion criteria. In meta-analysis smoking during pregnancy was significantly associated with a 47% increase in the odds of stillbirth (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.37, 1.57, p < 0.0001). In subgroup analysis, smoking 1-9 cig/day and ≥10 cig/day was associated with an 9% and 52% increase in the odds of stillbirth respectively. Subsequently, studies defining stillbirth at ≥ 20 weeks demonstrated a 43% increase in odds for smoking mothers compared to mothers who do not smoke, (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.32, 1.54, p < 0.0001), whereas studies with stillbirth defined at ≥ 24 weeks and ≥ 28 weeks showed 58% and 33% increase in the odds of stillbirth respectively.

Conclusion

Our review confirms a dose-response effect of maternal smoking in pregnancy on risk of stillbirth. To minimise the risk of stillbirth, reducing current smoking prevalence in pregnancy should continue to be a key public health high priority.

Electronic cigarettes

By ASH (2014)

This Action on Smoking and Health (ASH) briefing summarises the evidence on electronic cigarettes.

Click here to view this summary

Alcohol, drugs and tobacco joint strategic needs assessment support pack

By Public Health England (October 2014)

This support pack aims to help local areas develop joint strategic needs assessments and local joint health and wellbeing strategies that effectively address public health issues relating to alcohol, drug and tobacco use. It consists of eight resources covering young people’s substance misuse and adult alcohol, drug and, for the first time in 2014, tobacco use. For each topic area there are good practice evidence-based prompts to support local areas to assess need, plan and commission effective services and interventions. The second component for each topic is a bespoke data pack for every local authority to support needs assessment and commissioning.

Click here to view this support pack

Electronic cigarettes: a report commissioned by Public Health England

By Public Health England (2014)

These reports, commissioned by PHE, examine the evidence on risks and opportunities presented by electronic cigarettes. Electronic cigarettes takes a broad look at the issues relating to e-cigarettes including their role in tobacco harm reduction, potential hazards, potential benefits and regulation. E-cigarette uptake and marketing examines use of e-cigarettes by children and young people, the scale and nature of current marketing and its implications, in particular in relation to its potential appeal to young people.

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Standardised packaging of tobacco: report of the independent review undertaken by Sir Cyril Chantler

By The Chantler Review (2014)

This report concludes that standardised packaging of tobacco is likely to contribute to a reduction in smoking, including reducing the rate of children taking up smoking.

Click here to view this report