Tag Archives: Smoking

Maternal smoking and the risk of still birth: systematic review and meta-analysis

Marufu, T.C et al (2015) BMC Public Health, 15: 239

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Smoking in pregnancy is known to be associated with a range of adverse pregnancy outcomes, yet there is a high prevalence of smoking among pregnant women in many countries, and it remains a major public health concern. We have conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide contemporary estimates of the association between maternal smoking in pregnancy and the risk of stillbirth.


We searched four databases namely MEDLINE, EMBASE, Psych Info and Web of Science for all relevant original studies published until 31st December 2012. We included observational studies that measured the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and the risk of stillbirth.


1766 studies were screened for title analysis, of which 34 papers (21 cohorts, 8 case controls and 5 cross sectional studies) met the inclusion criteria. In meta-analysis smoking during pregnancy was significantly associated with a 47% increase in the odds of stillbirth (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.37, 1.57, p < 0.0001). In subgroup analysis, smoking 1-9 cig/day and ≥10 cig/day was associated with an 9% and 52% increase in the odds of stillbirth respectively. Subsequently, studies defining stillbirth at ≥ 20 weeks demonstrated a 43% increase in odds for smoking mothers compared to mothers who do not smoke, (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.32, 1.54, p < 0.0001), whereas studies with stillbirth defined at ≥ 24 weeks and ≥ 28 weeks showed 58% and 33% increase in the odds of stillbirth respectively.


Our review confirms a dose-response effect of maternal smoking in pregnancy on risk of stillbirth. To minimise the risk of stillbirth, reducing current smoking prevalence in pregnancy should continue to be a key public health high priority.


Electronic cigarettes

By ASH (2014)

This Action on Smoking and Health (ASH) briefing summarises the evidence on electronic cigarettes.

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Alcohol, drugs and tobacco joint strategic needs assessment support pack

By Public Health England (October 2014)

This support pack aims to help local areas develop joint strategic needs assessments and local joint health and wellbeing strategies that effectively address public health issues relating to alcohol, drug and tobacco use. It consists of eight resources covering young people’s substance misuse and adult alcohol, drug and, for the first time in 2014, tobacco use. For each topic area there are good practice evidence-based prompts to support local areas to assess need, plan and commission effective services and interventions. The second component for each topic is a bespoke data pack for every local authority to support needs assessment and commissioning.

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Electronic cigarettes: a report commissioned by Public Health England

By Public Health England (2014)

These reports, commissioned by PHE, examine the evidence on risks and opportunities presented by electronic cigarettes. Electronic cigarettes takes a broad look at the issues relating to e-cigarettes including their role in tobacco harm reduction, potential hazards, potential benefits and regulation. E-cigarette uptake and marketing examines use of e-cigarettes by children and young people, the scale and nature of current marketing and its implications, in particular in relation to its potential appeal to young people.

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Standardised packaging of tobacco: report of the independent review undertaken by Sir Cyril Chantler

By The Chantler Review (2014)

This report concludes that standardised packaging of tobacco is likely to contribute to a reduction in smoking, including reducing the rate of children taking up smoking.

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Smoking, plain packaging and public health

By Adam Smith Institute (2014)

This briefing is the first in a series which aims to analyse policies towards tobacco harm reduction and looks at the effectiveness of plain packaging policies.

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A tobacco-free future: an all-island report on tobacco, inequalities and childhood

By Institute of Public Health in Ireland (2013)

The central aim of the report is to contribute to knowledge on the exposure of children to the harmful effects of tobacco smoke at various stages of their development. The findings of the report can support policy makers and service providers in their efforts to make tobacco-free childhoods a reality on the
island of Ireland.

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