Category Archives: Alcohol, Tobacco & Drugs

The regulation of e-cigarettes

By The House of Commons Library (2017)

This briefing provides an overview on the regulation of e-cigarettes in the UK and across Europe. It also outlines new product requirements for e-cigarettes and identifies where national regulations have gone beyond what is in EU regulations.

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Models of delivery for stop smoking services: options and evidence

By Public Health England (2017)

This document supports directors of public health and local healthcare commissioners in rapidly appraising the evidence, to enable informed decisions on the provision of local smoking cessation.

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Big cuts planned to public health budgets

by The King’s Fund (2017)

Central government cuts have forced councils to reduce planned spending on vital public health services such as sexual health clinics and reducing harm from smoking, alcohol and drugs by £85 million, according to new analysis by The King’s Fund.

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Adult drinking habits in Great Britain: 2005 to 2016

By Office for National Statistics (2017)

Specialist substance misuse services for young people: a rapid mixed-methods evidence review of current provision and main principles for commissioning

By Public Health England (2017)

PHE commissioned The Children’s Society to undertake scoping research, to understand some of the opportunities and challenges currently facing those now responsible for commissioning and delivering young people’s specialist substance misuse services and to outline some critical good practice principles. Four main commissioning principles have been developed for the commissioning and provision of specialist substance misuse provision for young people, based on the findings, research and evidence-based guidelines.

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Maternal smoking and the risk of still birth: systematic review and meta-analysis

Marufu, T.C et al (2015) BMC Public Health, 15: 239

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Abstract

Background

Smoking in pregnancy is known to be associated with a range of adverse pregnancy outcomes, yet there is a high prevalence of smoking among pregnant women in many countries, and it remains a major public health concern. We have conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide contemporary estimates of the association between maternal smoking in pregnancy and the risk of stillbirth.

Methods

We searched four databases namely MEDLINE, EMBASE, Psych Info and Web of Science for all relevant original studies published until 31st December 2012. We included observational studies that measured the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and the risk of stillbirth.

Results

1766 studies were screened for title analysis, of which 34 papers (21 cohorts, 8 case controls and 5 cross sectional studies) met the inclusion criteria. In meta-analysis smoking during pregnancy was significantly associated with a 47% increase in the odds of stillbirth (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.37, 1.57, p < 0.0001). In subgroup analysis, smoking 1-9 cig/day and ≥10 cig/day was associated with an 9% and 52% increase in the odds of stillbirth respectively. Subsequently, studies defining stillbirth at ≥ 20 weeks demonstrated a 43% increase in odds for smoking mothers compared to mothers who do not smoke, (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.32, 1.54, p < 0.0001), whereas studies with stillbirth defined at ≥ 24 weeks and ≥ 28 weeks showed 58% and 33% increase in the odds of stillbirth respectively.

Conclusion

Our review confirms a dose-response effect of maternal smoking in pregnancy on risk of stillbirth. To minimise the risk of stillbirth, reducing current smoking prevalence in pregnancy should continue to be a key public health high priority.

Alcohol: cumulative impact policies

By House of Commons Library (2015)

This briefing paper discusses cumulative impact policies which are a tool for licencing authorities to limit the growth of licenced premises in problem areas.

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